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  • Category: Madurai




    The origins of the city are cloaked in myth and little of its prehistory has become known. When Madurai steps into the limelight of history, namely through the sliver of literature of the last Sangam (Tamil poetic conclave), it emerges as a confident and sophisticated society, presupposing centuries of hitherto poorly documented development. Nevertheless, the city enjoyed its reputation as a magnet for literary and artistic activity during the early centuries before and after Christ in what is called the 'Sangam Age', named after the bardic conclaves, which produced a copious amount of sophisticated literature under the patronage of the Pandya kings. The early history of the city, in fact at least until the 13th century A.D., is irrevocably tied with the fortunes of the Pandya clan, which ruled the far south of India with Madurai as its capital. Megasthenes, the Seleucid envoy of the Mauryan court in Pataliputra, bears witness to the greatness of Madurai in the 3rd century B.C. through his Indica, albeit surviving as a fragmentary record in the writings of other classical historians. According to the account, a queen governed Madurai by the name of Pandya, the daughter of Herakles. He also makes note of the kingdom's wealth and like Kautilya in the Arthasastra makes account of the rich resources much sought by traders, namely gemstones, pearls and other rare organic produce. The Pandyas and their kingdom are also noted in other early texts, for instance in several recensions of the epics (Ramayana and the Mahabharata - though these may well be later additions), in the work of the Sanskrit grammarian Katyayana, Ptolemy's Geography, the anonymous Periplus of the Erthyean Sea and perhaps more famously in the Ashokan edicts. Little note however has been made of the city's customs and physical remains though. Megasthenes however note one interesting exception, namely that of individual households taking turns to supply the royal house with necessities like clarified butter and grain. This practice must have been ancient since the later Tamil epic Silapadikaram confirms it. Tamil sources themselves confirm the antiquity of the city.

    Gopuram Of Madurai Meenakshi Temple

    According to a late text, the city played host to the Third Sangam, the first two being held in coastal cities lost to the sea in distant memory. Whatever the case may be the city of Madurai has been greatly remembered in popular memory for the immense literary activity which produced some of the greatest bards and epic-writers in literary history, ranging from figures like Nakirar of Sangam fame to the late medieval child-poet Kumaragurubarar. It also hosted the literary conclaves that produced the first Tamil epics Silappathikaaram and other literary masterpieces. Underlying this literary activity was royal patronage and the Pandya kings were overly enthusiastic in the promotion of literary activity, some of them being notable poets themselves. Of course such literary and artistic activity (less attested for the early period) presupposed prosperity which the city more or less enjoyed throughout the ages with a few ruptures, the worst perhaps being the invasion of the Delhi Sultanate and the brief iconoclastic rule of the Madurai Sultans in the late 13th century. Besides literary prowess, the city was also noted for its artistic activity (especially well documented after the 5th century) and its role as a religious centre both for the Brahmanic faith and for Jainism. Few, if any, objects of artistic quality survive in the city from before the 5th century, at least before the rise of the Pallava king Mahendravarman who was so influential in introducing stone (more durable) as an artistic medium. Yet literature, both Tamil and classical, furnish us with some details of the industrial and fine arts of the city. Mention is made of fine lamps and exotica created for the Roman market. Sculpture of durable material (e.g. stone and bronze) could not have been entirely unknown considering the strong links with Near Eastern ports and later with Greco-Roman traders. In fact, mention has been made in Tamil literature of commemorative statuary produced by Kings of the early age. Stone however seems to have been less favorable a medium due to funerary connections. From the 5th century onwards more material, especially stone statuary, survives to validate the antiquity of the city's artistic traditions. The Meenakshi Sundareswara temple, which is at the heart of Madurai, does not survive in its original state for much comment to be made of its early architecture. Nevertheless the temple and its goddess, the tutelary deity of the Pandyas and according to legend an early progenitor of the line herself is surely of great antiquity. Much of its early history like the cities is shrouded in myth and little remains of 'history' to be gathered. Nevertheless, it would suffice to mention that the early Pandya king Kulasekhara to house the Shiva Linga, apparently worshipped by the Deva Indra, built it originally. The walls around the Sundarewara shrine are surely ancient since the Saint Sambandar in his hymns also attests to them. The artistic tradition of the city becomes clearer towards the late medieval age, especially in the Vijayanagar-Nayaka age where enough survives to distinguish numerous craft industries ranging from ivory carving to bronze working. Turning to the religious affiliations of the city, note has already been made of the city's ancient shrine to Meenakshi and Sundareswara, in effect the divine pair Shiva-Parvati though it has been proposed that these were regional deities posthumously identified with Brahmanical deities in the complicated process of 'Aryanisation'. Nevertheless, as attested by literature the Pandyas were ardent supporters of the Brahmanic faith and all temples in the city have in the foundation-myths, royal origins. The archetypal king was of course the great warrior, patron of arts and letters and above all a model of piety, perhaps surviving in sculptural form in the Nayaka king portraits in anjali mudra gracing the mandapas of Madurai's great temple. Also gracing the city in the early centuries of the first millennium were the Saiva and Vaishnava saints who produced the devotional literature represented in the Nalayira Divya Prabhandam (Vaishnava) and the Tevaram corpus (Saiva). In Madurai's history, the child-saint Sambandar was probably most famous for having performed the conversion of the Pandya king who adhered to the Jaina faith. In a series of miracles, the Saiva saint shamed the Jaina advisors of the King, who later suffered the terrible fate of impalement. Jainism was for most of Madurai's early history a successful rival to the Brahmanic faith. Interestingly the earliest inscriptions (2nd century B.C) in the Madurai environs belong to Jain ascetics who inscribed them on nearby granitic outcrops. Many other notable Jain sites like Sittanavasal are also to be found in the Pandya domain, most in close proximity to Madurai.

    The Classical Connection

    In the early centuries of Christ there existed voluminous sea-trade between the lands of the Mediterranean, most notably Rome, and the lands of South India. Augustus Caesar speaks of Indian envoys, hitherto unknown in Rome and boasts having been the first Roman ruler to entreat them. The trade in pearls, gemstones, live animals and other exotic produce brought not just foreign products but ideas and people as well. The cosmopolitan city of Madurai, though inland benefited greatly from this trade. No doubt, classical influences permeated local traditions and customs. Mention is made of Yavana (Greco-Roman) bodyguards for the Pandya royalty and the nearby ports harboured settlements of Mediterranean merchants. Hoards of Roman coins have been found in undisturbed coastal sites, the most famous find being further north at Arikamedu (4 km from Puduchery), mostly a part of the later Chola and Pallava Kingdoms. Little remains of the physical temples and buildings to suggest classical influence there, nevertheless, the presence of a Roman-style theatre at Amravati in Andhra and toga-wearing Buddhist statuary might suggest a similar influence on the Pandian Madurai though the suggestion is at best a conjecture due to the paucity of ancient remains.

    Nayak Rule

    Vijayanagar rulers appointed Governors known as Nayaks or Nayyakars to administer this newly annexed territory. By 1545, the Nayaks became more autonomous, establishing the Madurai Nayak dynasty ruling up to 1740s. The temple was reopened and the Nayaks, most notably Thirumalai Nayak, contributed much to the rebuilding of the temple that had almost been destroyed during the Muslim rule. The Nayaks made lasting contributions to the city's architecture such as the Raja Gopuram of the Meenakshi Temple, and the Thirumalai Nayak Palace. After the Vijayanagar Empire collapsed in 1565, the Nayak dynasty continued to rule Madurai for about two centuries. Rani Mangammal (1689-1704) was other notable ruler who made large contributions to the city's structures. During her reign Shivaji Bhonsle, the great Maratha Ruler, invaded the south; and so did Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore and other Muslim rulers, resulting in chaos and instability all around. Rani Mangammal stood up against these invasions. Though her rule lasted no more than two decades, she was cherished by the people of Madurai for the prudence, determination and courage she exhibited during a particularly troublesome period, with very little support from outside. The kingdom began to break up after her rule as her successors were weak rulers, and invasions of Madurai recommenced.

    British Rule

    Madurai soon started slipping into the hands of the British East India Company. By 1801, the whole of Madurai district, which then was made up of Dindigul, Palani, Kodaikkanal, Ramanathapuram and Sivagangai was brought under the control of British East India Company. Madurai was the birthplace of American academic Vida Dutton Scudder. American missionary Henry Martyn Scudder came to Madurai in 1846. Great Tamil Poet Bharathiyar worked in Sethupathi School as Tamil Teacher for brief time. Today, Madurai stands on the banks of the river Vaigai. The city is well known for its spiritual hill Thiruparankundram which abodes lord Subramaniya. Apart from this, the ancient city is also surrounded by three small prominent hills, which are called the Anaimalai, Pasumalai and Nagamalai from their supposed resemblance to an elephant, a cow and a snake respectively. In the post-Independence era, Madurai District, headquartered at Madurai city, was one of the largest districts of Tamil Nadu. It was also the administrative headquarters of the neighboring Ramanathapuram District. However, in 1984, the then huge Madurai district was bifurcated into Madurai and Dindigul District for administrative convenience. Again, in 1997, it was bifurcated into Madurai and Theni District. Like all other districts of India, it is administered by a, a person from the [[Indian Administrative Service]]. Mr. T. Udhayachandar is the current District collector. A recent attraction is the Madurai Bench of Madras High Court in Ulaganeri, Madurai, the only location outside of Chennai to have such a setup.

    Satellite image of Madurai Agglomeration

    Madurai has an area of 52 sq. km (now extended upto 130 Madurai is located at 9.93° N 78.12° E. Therefore, it has an average elevation of 101 meters above Mean Sea Level. The climate is dry and hot, with rains during October-December. Temperature during the summer reaches a maximum of 40.0 Deg. C. and Minimum of 26.3 Deg. C. During winter, the temperature reaches a maximum of 29.6 Deg. C. and a minimum of 18.0 Deg. C. The average annual rainfall is 85 cm (850mm)

    Vegetable vendor in Madurai

    As of 2001 India census, the city of Madurai had a population of 922,913 and the urban area 1,194,665. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Madurai has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 74%. In Madurai, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. There are 968 females per 1,000 males.

    Population decline:

    The population decline in the last decade may be accounted for the city's stagnant or no industrial development. Due to the software boom, educated youngsters of the city have no option but to migrate to the cities like Chennai and Bangalore for lucrative jobs. Successive state governments took no action to develop the city's industry, and even closed some companies like Madurai Coats. Recent trends assure the spread of the IT and industrial investments pouring in from the public and private sectors targeting the highly educated youth. Tamil is the lingua franca of Madurai and is understood by almost everyone. Tamil spoken in Madurai is relatively pure, and devoid of influences from other languages. The Sourashtra language is spoken by members of the transmigrant Sourashtra community, which maintains a significant presence in the city. Other languages such as Telugu, Urdu and Hindi are also spoken by few migrants in the city. English is understood by almost all educated citizens most of whom are youthful.

    People and culture

    M.S.Subbulakshmi, who hailed from Madurai. The people of Madurai are amicable, hospitable, and deeply respect and value their traditions. Though Salwar Kameez, a generally north-western Indian wear for women, has made deep inroads into the city's populace, many prefer the traditional Indian wear of Thavani or Dhavani, also called Half Saree, and Saree. Recently too, the preference for Western wear has increased. Maduraiites like to entertain themselves by watching movies and visiting amusement parks. The city has plenty of Movie Halls, numbering about 50. This is a large number for a city of Madurai's size, and recently many Movie Halls have closed down due to High-ticket rates. Madurai once had a rich tradition of Carnatic music, boasting of several stalwarts. Popular carnatic vocalist M. S. Subbulakshmi was born in Madurai and learnt music here until she moved to Madras. Madurai is famous for the Jil Jil Jigarthanda, Paruthi Pal, and sugar cane juice. Jil Jil Jigarthanda is a delicious drink made of algae, milk and sugar. Paruthi pal is yet another drink made of cotton seeds, flour of raw rice, coconut and jaggery. In addition, a special 'fruit mixture' drink is sold here, mostly near the Meenakshi Amman Temple. Some of the famous restaurants in Madurai are the Modern Restaurant (since 1956), Arya Bhavan and the latest Madurai Meenakshi Bhavan. The specialty of Modern Restaurant is the scrumptious chili parotta, which is spicy shredded bits of parotta garnished with green chilies, lemon, and cilantro. Another favorite joint is Murugan Idli Shop that serves steaming hot idlis and a variety of chutneys to go with it. One great distinction about Madurai's road side food joints is that they are available almost all the time. Visitors to Madurai are recommended to try the dosas and pongals; there are some 30 varieties of dosas alone. Madurai with its traditional food is now having the introduction of Cafes here. Coffee Day has its outlet in the city, which attracts lot of "cosmopolitians" in the city. There are other Fast food openings like Shake Away and Tornado. Hava Valley is one of the best "Date Spot" in the city on the foothills of alagarmalai, rendering people with its green and cool climate. Madurai is also well known for its fragrant Jasmine flowers. Jasmine is known as Malli or Malligai in Tamil. Madurai Malli is an important horticultural product. The buds are transported every day to major cities in India, like Salem, Tuticorin, Nagercoil and Rajapalayam.

    Thirumalai Naicker Mahal

    The City of Madurai was originally built around the Meenakshi temple. Rectangular streets named after the Tamil months of Aadi, Chithirai and Maasi surround the temple, symbolizing the structure of the cosmos. Though there are numerous other temples in Madurai, which is why it is known as the "Temple City", the Meenakshi temple's architectural splendor outdoes all of them. The Temple Complex in itself is breathtaking, given the fort-like walls pierced with lofty gopurams (towers), over an area of 640,000 square feet (60,000 m²). The gopurams are adorned with figures of Hindu gods, animals and mythological creatures. Upon entering the temple, one gets to view the spectacular Potraamaraikkulam, meaning the Golden Lotus pond, surrounded by corridors depicting murals from the Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam. The Ayirangaal Mandapam (Thousand Pillared Hall) is another exhibit of impressive craftsmanship whose pillars feature sculptural work beyond comparison. Madurai has many other famous temples. Some of them are: Thirupparankundram, Pazhamuthircholai, two of the six temple shrines of Lord Murugan (son of Lord Shiva according to Tamil beliefs); Azhagarkovil, a prominent Vaishnavaite shrine, Aappudaiyaar temple and Koodalazhagar temple.
    Present-day Madurai extends on both sides of the River Vaigai. The parts of the city adjoining the temple in the southern banks of Vaigai are bustling commercial hubs where one can find everything from basic necessities to electronic gadgets. As a result, they are congested and offer little scope for further expansion. However, across the river, is where one would find the chic, modern and young face of Madurai with its relatively spacious roads and structures with plenty of room for expansion and development. There is a mosque called Kazimar Periya Pallivasal or Kazimar Big Mosque, located within a kilometer from the temple. Hazrat Kazi Syed Tajuddin who came from Oman during late 12th century, got this land from the king Ku Pandian and constructed the mosque, which is the first ever Muslim place of worship in Madurai. All his descendants (Huqdars-Share holders of that mosque called Syeds) have lived in the same locality for 700 years, and managed the mosque since then. Syed Tajuddin was appointed as Kazi of the sultans, and till now his descendants who live at Kazimar street, Madurai are appointed as Kazis to the Government of Tamil Nadu. All syeds belong to the Sunni sect of Islam with Hanafi school. Most of the descendants of Kazi syed tajuddin are shadhilis (shazuli) and follow the Sufi order Fassiyatush Shadhiliya The Thirumalai Nayakar Mahal is located in Madurai It has been constructed in the Indo-Saracen style by Thirumalai nayakar in 1636. This palace was declared as a national monument and is now under the care of the Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department.
    The original Palace Complex was four times bigger than the present structure. This palace was divided into two parts, namely Swarga-vilasa and Rang -vilasa. In these two parts, there are royal residence, theater, shrine, apartments, armory, palanquin place, royal bandstand, quarters, pond and garden. The ceilings are decorated with large paintings showing Shaivite and Vaishnavite themes.

    The portico known as Swarga Vilasam is an arcaded octagon wholly constructed of brick and mortar without the support of a single rafter or girder, is a standing testimony to the Dravidian skills. The stucco work on its domes and arches is remarkable. The gigantic pillars and structures represents the amazing architectural mastery of Nayak Kings. The courtyard and the dancing hall are being the center of attractions. The stucco work on its domes and arches is remarkable. There are around 248 pillars of each 58 feet toll and 5 feet diameter
    Furniture and utensils used by the kings have been exhibited inside the palace. The palace is equipped to perform Light & Sound shows depicting the story of Silappathikaram in both Tamil and English languages.

    Entry Timings: 9.00 am. To 1.00 pm 2.00 pm. To 5.00 pm. Entrance Fee: Re.1/-per head.
    Timings for daily Sound and light show: English at 6.45 pm, Tamil at 8.15 pm. Ticket charges for the Sound and Light show: Adults Rs.10/-, Child Rs.5
    The Madurai Collectorate, Madurai District Court, Madurai Bench of Madras High Court, Madurai Corporation Building, Madurai Race Course, Government Offices, and many schools, colleges and companies are located in the northern part of the city.

    The Temples in the City

    Meenakshi Amman Temple

    The Meenakshi-Sundareswarar temple, which stands today as one of India's cultural and architectural landmarks, was originally built by the early Pandya King Kulasekara. The ancient city of Madurai was supposed to be laid out in a lotus-like formation with the temple at the center and streets and main thoroughfares layered one after the other in a concentric fashion. Legend has it that on the day the city was to be named, Lord Shiva blessed the land and its people while divine nectar showered on the city from his matted locks. The city hence came to be known as "Madhurapuri" meaning "The City of Divine Nectar". It is most likely a late legend attempting to Sanskritise the otherwise Dravidian derivative of 'Madurai'. Perplexingly there remains another ancient city in the North by the name of Madura of Krishna fame. Could it be possible that the Southern city found a famous Northern name just as Madura in Indonesia and Ayuthia in Thailand are named after the counterparts in India. The appropriation of sacred geography was nothing novel and was to be repeated in the South's history perhaps most famously in Rajendra Chola's Gangaikondacholapuram.
    The city has often been referred to as "Athens of the East" perhaps due to its monumental temples. Much of the monumentalism can be attributed to the medieval Vijayanagara-Nayaka Kings who embellished the original structures with numerous prakaras (circumambulatory pathways) and mandapas (halls). The thousand-pillared hall was one such innovation of the period. The thousand-pillared hall of the Meenakshi Sundareswara temple is particularly famous for its beautiful sculptural depictions of Rati, Kama, Nritya Ganapati and Bhairava amongst countless others. The Thirukalyanam or Divine Wedding of Meenakshi and her spouse Sundareswara is rendered in poignant manner by the Nayaka artists. The temple is a treasure-trove of statuary of varying quality, the new stucco being somewhat clumsier and gaudy in the face of the austere and imposing granitic works of the Vijayanagar-Nayaka period. Rarely old Pandya sculpture is integrated into the newer portions and the sanctum sanctorum of the temple certainly contains images of great antiquity. The destruction or rather devastation of the old temple by the raiding armies of the Sultanate coerced late medieval rulers to rebuild many portions of the temple. Most famous of all patrons was the Nayaka king Thirumalai Nayak whose palace also survives in fragmentary state. Another equally famous site within the temple walls is the Potramarai Kulam or Golden Lotus Tank, reputedly used to test the quality of literary works of the Sangam. It is said the didactic philosopher Valluvar's work was thrown into the tank to test its reputed worth. The work, which miraculously did not sink, was accepted by the poetic conclave of Madurai. The legend is most likely an apocryphal one, used to boost the reputation of didactic philosopher's work, The Thirukkural.
    The other noteworthy temple of Madurai, whose foundation myth is intricately connected with the Meenakshi Sundareswara is the [[Azhagar Kovil]] or Temple of the Handsome One, dedicated to Vishnu who in Madurai's legend appears as the goddess Meenakshi's brother, officiating her marriage with Sundareswara (Shiva whose name here coincidentally also means the Handsome One - albeit in Sanskrit). The high onion-dome of the sanctum sanctorum although brightly covered in later stucco work reveals the outline of an older Pandya plan. The gold-covered horse vahana (mount) of the deity is a particular attraction alongside ancient jewelry surviving in some amount (as does in the Meenakshi Sundareswara - some even donated by British colonial officials). A thriving business has been made of selling temple memorabilia and religious trinkets, often within the temple walls, sometimes obscuring the fine statuary. The practice of selling mementoes for devotees is however not novel and examples survive at least from the 18th century ranging from cloth prints to miniature reproductions of the temple's main deity for the pocket of the devotee.

    Mariamman Teppakulam

    Mariamman Teppakulam is a beautiful square tank spread over a huge area of almost 16 acres, located about 5Kms East of Meenakshi Temple. The tank is the scene of the colorful float festival held in January/February to celebrate the birth anniversary of King Thirumalai Nayak, who built this tank. The deities of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar are placed in a float, called "Teppam", decorated with flowers and illuminated with hundred of lights. This float is taken around the tank to the sound of traditional music. On the Northern, side of the tank a temple is dedicated to Mariamman, a famous village deity of Tamil Nadu.

    Alagar Koil

    About 21 Kms North East of Madurai, stands a celebrated Vishnu Temple dedicated to Lord Alagar. The temple is situated on a hill amidst panoramic surroundings. The shrine is known as Alagar Koil and the hill, Solaimalai. The temple also contain some beautiful carvings and makes the visit rewarding. Palamudirsolai, one of the six abodes of Lord Subramaniya is located atop the Hill.

    Madurai Tamil

    Madurai Tamil is known as the standard Tamil. Nowadays, In Pop Culture, The colloquial Tamil spoken by Madurai People is shown as Madurai Tamil


    Madurai is well connected by air, rail and road. The railway station is one of the busiest in World, with trains from every minor city in India, and has computerized reservation counters. Madurai Division has repeatedly got the award for best maintained station in Southern Railway. The railway station code for Madurai Junction is MDU. Madurai has twenty bus stands, which cater to the needs of the people: Central Bus terminus at Central Bus stand (North) the second biggest bus stand in South east Asia after Koyembedu, Chennai, Palanganatham (South), Arappalayam (West), Periyar (Central) and Anna Bus stand (East). The major bus stand is at Mattuthavani, from where many buses all over the country operate round the clock. A sudden importance to infrastructure has been well augmented by construction of bridges across the Vaigai river to connect Madurai at various points. Flyovers have been constructed within the city to overcome traffic congestion. The Golden Quadrilateral and the four lane highway to Madras makes Madurai one of the most well connected cities in Asia. Madurai Airport is approximately 13 kilometers from the Madurai Railway station, and currently has connectivity to Bangalore, Chennai and Mumbai. Jet Airways, Air Deccan, Paramount Airways and Indian Airlines are the only airline operators. International flights from Madurai to Colombo, Singapore and Gulf countries plan to start their service this year. Soon Madurai airport will become busiest airport like Chennai.


    Madurai is the home to popular Kamaraj University. The City has Medical College, Agricultural College, Law College and many Engineering, Arts and Science Colleges. Madurai has many reputed Schools, Polytechnics and ITIs.

    The (1966) situated in Nagamalai Pudukottai, has 18 schools, which in turn is made up of 72 departments. It pioneered the concept of Distance Education throughout India, and its Directorate of Distance Education currently boasts of student strength of about 130,000. Several other Arts and Science colleges are present in and around the city, affiliated to the Madurai Kamaraj University.


    Madurai is home to some of India's oldest institutions including the Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Thiagarajar college of Arts and science, The American College and the Madura College. The city has a Medical College, Madurai Medical College (1954), an Agricultural College and a Law College. Madurai is also home to Lady Doak College (1948), which is the oldest college for women in south India.
    M.S.S.WAKF BOARD COLLEGE (The only college in India run by Govt.Wakf Board) The city also has its share of Engineering Colleges, Polytechnics, Paramedical and Nursing Colleges. This city is home to one of Tamil Nadu's oldest engineering institutions, [Thiagarajar College of Engineering] (1957) and private engineering colleges such as ) KLN. College Of Engineering Sivagangai Dt. (1994) Raja College of Engineering and Technology Madurai Dt. (1995), Sethu Institute of Technology Ramanathapuram Dt., SACS MAVMM Engineering college Azhagar Koil, Vickram College of Engineering(2001), PTR College of Engineering, the Kamaraj College of Engineering & Technology in Kaligudi.


    Schools in Madurai are run by the Tamil Nadu Government or either Government aided or are run privately.

    The Sethupathi Higher Secondary School is over 100 years old. Subramanya Bharathi, the famous Tamil poet, was a teacher in this school. The OCPM Girls Higher Secondary School is over 200 years old. Sourashtra Higher Secondary School is over 100 years old. St.Mary's Higher Secondary School This school is over 100 years old Sourashtra Boys higher Secondary School This school is more than 100 years old St.Britto Hr.Sec.School, St.Joseph's Matriculation higher secondary school, Saracens matriculation school (SEPARATE CAMPUSES FOR BOYS AND GIRLS), Ayira Vaisya Higher Secondary school, Velliambalam Dolphin Matriculation higher secondary school, Rotary Laharry, TVS higher secondary school, S.D.H.Jainvidyalaya, SBOA, Seventh Day Adventist, Mary Ann Matriculation Higher Secondary School, VHN Higher Secondary School, TVS Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Jeevana School, Mahatma Montessori Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Noyes Matriculation Higher Secondary School, VMJ Higher Secondary School, Thiagarajar Model Higher Secondary School, TVS Lakshmi School, Sourashtra Girls Higher Secondary School, Prasana Venkatesware Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Nirmala Girls Higher Secondary School, MRR. MAVMM. Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Two Central Schools,one at Narimedu(started in 1966) and the other at Thirupparankundram (started in 2004).

    Gandhi Museum

    Timings: 1000hrs to 1300 hrs and 1400 hrs to 1730 hrs. (Open all days)
    Housed in the old Palace of Rani Mangammal, the Gandhi Museum depicts the highlights of the freedom struggle and contains a picture gallery of the Gandhian movement. Also can be seen are a gallery of relics, Khadi and village industries section and South Indian Handicrafts section.

    Flower Seller in Madurai Market

    Madurai's economy was chiefly agrarian. Paddy plantation was widely seen. Textiles and tourism contribute significantly to the local economy. Madurai is famous for "Sungidi", a fine-count, zari-bordered, fabric painted cotton saree. However, in the past few years, overt dependence on monsoons, and international competition and cheaper imports have dented the performance of agriculture and textile sectors respectively. Madurai has a thriving flower industry, jasmine in particular. "Madurai Malli" jasmine is well known across Tamil Nadu and beyond for its enchanting fragrance. The cultivation of jasmine is done at the foothills of Kodaikanal near Madurai, with its red soil which retains water. The flowers are in good demand in other parts of India like Salem, Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata and Hyderabad. They are also exported to the Middle East and Singapore, where they are used in perfumes.

    Health Care

    Madurai is also home to the Aravind Eye Care System which is an international eye-care hospital, research and training institute that provides quality and affordable eye health care to all, and an organisation which develops high-volume, low-cost service models for deployment in India and developing nations. Aravind has pioneered a system of vertical integration in healthcare by conducting in-house training of doctors and paramedicals, developing comprehensive hospital design standards, and manufacturing intra-ocular lenses, pharmaceuticals and sutures for use in cataract surgery. The Aravind eye hospital was founded by Padmashree Dr. G. Venkataswamy. AIIMS ( All India Institute For Medical Sciences, New Delhi) is setting up a high end, mordern hospital in the city, first ever of its type in South India. In addition, this is getting added to the top level hospitals in Madurai. Other important Hospitals are: Govt. Rajaji Hospital of Madurai Medical Collage, Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Apollo Speciality Hospitals, and Christian Mission Hospitals etc.

    Industrial Development

    Madurai has long been a laggard in industrial development as compared to other parts of Tamil Nadu and India. TVS, India, TVS Srichakra, manufacturer of tyres and tubes for two wheelers, Fenner, manufacturer of solid woven PVC conveyor belts, TAFE, manufacturer of tractors and farm equipments and Madura Coats, manufacturer of textiles are some of the major companies in Madurai. Honeywell, a technology and manufacturing company in aerospace products and services. Madurai based Aztecs Technologies Private Limited is offering high-end engineering software services in the domain areas of Mapping, Geographic Information System (GIS), Engineering drawing conversion, data conversion and the like. ANT (Advanced Networking Technology) Solution is the one of the leading IT Networking Solution provider. SAMTRACK was the first BPO company to get established in Madurai in 2000 and Software was the first IT products company from the city, specializing in trading and risk management solutions.ITflexSolutions is a leading Software and Web Development Company in Madurai. The IT flex Solutions put forward a wide-ranging of Software Development and web development services. Madurai based Winways is the first exclusive open source software venture in south Tamilnadu. According to a recent task force report released by the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), Madurai district has the potential to become a "manufacturing hub" and can be promoted as a knowledge gateway and tourism corridor of southern Tamil Nadu. The State and Union Governments, acknowledging the fact that there has been little industrial development in Madurai district, have adopted a multi-pronged approach to give a much-needed fillip to industrial growth. The Government has set up industrial estates in different parts of the city to push industrial growth in identified key areas, thus building entrepreneurs and creating new jobs. The following industrial estates are currently operational:
    SIDCO Industrial Estate, K.Pudur
    SIDCO Industrial Estate, Kappalur
    Hoisery Estate, Urangaanpatti
    Electrical and Electronics Industrial Estate, Kappalur
    Automobile Industrial Estate, Kappalur
    To reduce unemployment and to promote equitable growth of small-scale industries in all areas, District Industries Centers (DIC) were formed through out the country. DIC's primary objective is to provide aspiring and budding entrepreneurs all necessary assistance. In Madurai, it was formed in 1979. DIC conducts workshops periodically to motivate students of Engineering Colleges, Polytechnics and Industrial Training Institutes and how they can put their entrepreneurial skills to work. DIC also organizes programs to promote entrepreneurship among women.

    IT Industry

    Dot Com Info way(DCI) is a software development company started in the year 2000 and is running successfully with more than 300 employees. Mr. CR Venkatesh is the CEO of the company. Dot Com Info way owns the best south Indian online movie portal The growth of both the company and the employee is tremendos.
    Madurai IT association is formed to provide the educational as well as the IT related these associations provide the HR consultancy, Tranining, Madurai Recruitment database. is established in year 2004

    The emergence of the Honeywell's Research Lab tied to the Thiagarajar Engineering College and TCS' Disaster Recovery Centre have been instrumental in IT development of the city. In addition, interest from Syntel, Infosys and RR Industries in opening development centers mean Madurai can look forward to an IT industry driven future. The global software major, IBM, has established its "Rational Center of Excellence" that is equipped with latest software, hardware and networking technologies.
    The district administration has identified two sites, one near the Madurai Kamaraj University at Nagamalai Pudukottai and the other on the city outskirts, for setting up the much-awaited IT Park. The Government has transferred 8.81 hectares at Ilandhaikulam and 271 acres at Kinnimangalam (near Madurai Kamaraj University) to ELCOT. The Madurai Corporation has identified 29.93 acres of land for establishing the Tidel park in the city. The Tidel park will be an Elcot undertaking. NASSCOM, CII and MADITSSIA have joined hands to conduct the "", a move to show cause Madurai as an ideal IT destination. The government run STPI has plans to open its Madurai centre in the year 2007. AJ Square Software Consultancy (P) Ltd has set up a 50,000 Sq. Ft delivery center in vilachery main road. RR Industries making an IT SEZ & Township in sholankurini in 400 acres {may be expanded to 750 acres} HCL technologies planned to start their it hub in Madurai by 2009.Even Satyam computers also planned to start their hub in Madurai by 2009.another 2years Madurai become a major IT hub for south India after Chennai and Bangalore.

    Present Problems

    Unlike many other historical cities that have been reduced to small towns, hamlets and ruins in the modern age, Madurai still remains a "city" and a major regional hub of commerce. However, it is a concerning fact that it has failed to achieve the progress it should have and its city ranking has sunk in the past few decades. Not only has it failed to attract new domestic and foreign investments, but it has also failed to capitalize on its inherent strengths. Though there is no dearth of talent in Madurai, thanks to the Engineering and Science colleges in the city, it has not been able to retain the pool of qualified professionals. During the years following the Information Technology boom that swept across the country, the city saw an exodus of professionals to other urban centers, such as Chennai, Bangalore and Mumbai, which offered them better opportunities. Many blame the state government for limiting industrial development to northern Tamil Nadu, Chennai and its adjacent districts in particular, and cite this as the reason southern Tamil Nadu is industrially underdeveloped. While this claim may not be totally invalid, the main reason Madurai is industrially underdeveloped lies in the fact that there is a definite lack of initiative, endemic casteism and poor self-esteem amongst the local populace. The elite and professionals who ought to guide their fellow citizens into the new economy shrug away from their responsibilities, and worse, move to other cities looking for greener pastures and settle down there.
  • #2384
    Balasundar thanks for becoming member here and your article on Madurai is good. But it seems that it has been copied from other source. We do not approve copied version or copy paste articles here. Make sure you have written in own words and upload the articles in the resource section and not in forum.

    Follow the rules before moving further in this site.

    K Mohan

    Theeinal Sutta Punn Arumay...Aaradhey Naavinaal Sutta Vadu...

  • #2385
    Mr K.Mohan is right. It seems that the content is directly Copy pasted So Balasundar be Careful our Webmaster may ban you from writing for violating the rules of Tamil Spider. If You have not read these rules then click below and read.
    Guidelines of Tamil Spider

    Bhisma Narayan Rout
    Webmaster of Orissa spider

  • #2386
    Bala Sundar I too go with K.Mohan As presenting this much big articles gives you just only one point in the forum so you have to post this the resources section so that you can have more points for you resources and cash credits too. But remember that copied contents are not allowed in TSR, hence a void posting copied contents. As you are new to TSR go through the guidelines for posting, Point allocation structure, how to add html tags? etc., to present your resource more better and attractive. But attractive in sense not means meaningless resources. Resources can be made better through adding more keywords. First thing is that you hurry to upload your real photo as your profile picture, as it would add 50 points to your account. And also go through parntership program in TSR.

    Love makes Lyf Beautiful.
    Advance Happy new year 2011.

  • #2387
    hi balasundar,
    You have to know that forum section is only for posting short messages such as regarding Tamilspider and the district updates. You can have idea of the structure of tamilspider , some rules and regulations followed in TSR. You can post some good messages for members.

    Love makes Lyf Beautiful.
    Advance Happy New Year 2011.

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